By Keith W. Ross, James F. Kurose
Computer Networking keeps with an early emphasis on application-layer paradigms and alertness programming interfaces (the most sensible layer), encouraging a hands-on event with protocols and networking ideas, earlier than operating down the protocol stack to extra summary layers.
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Additional info for Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach (6th Edition)
Now, because you are developing a distributed Internet application, the programs running on the different end systems will need to send data to each other. And here we get to a central issue—one that leads to the alternative way of describing the Internet as a platform for applications. How does one program running on one end system instruct the Internet to deliver data to another program running on another end system? End systems attached to the Internet provide an Application Programming Interface (API) that specifies how a program running on one end system asks the Internet infrastructure to deliver data to a specific destination program running on another end system.
Messages can contain anything the application designer wants. 2) or can contain data, such as an email message, a JPEG image, or an MP3 audio file. To send a message from a source end system to a destination end system, the source breaks long messages into smaller chunks of data known as packets. Between source and destination, each packet travels through communication links and packet switches (for which there are two predominant types, routers and linklayer switches). Packets are transmitted over each communication link at a rate equal to the full transmission rate of the link.
11. A router will typically have many incident links, since its job is to switch an incoming packet onto an outgoing link; in this simple example, the router has the rather simple task of transferring a packet from one (input) link to the only other attached link. In this example, the source has three packets, each consisting of L bits, to send to the destination. 11, the source has transmitted some of packet 1, and the front of packet 1 has already arrived at the router. , “store”) the packet’s bits.