By Taoufik Bourdi
During this publication, the authors define distinct layout method for speedy frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and instant communications purposes. there's nice emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma dependent section locked loops from requirements, approach research and structure making plans to circuit layout and silicon implementation. The built options within the e-book will help in designing very low noise, excessive pace fractional-N frequency synthesizers.
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Additional resources for CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications: Design Methodology, Analysis, and Implementation
White noise (1/f 0), flicker noise (1/f 1), Oscillator noise in the thermal region (1/ f 2), and oscillator noise in the upconverted flicker noise region (1/f 3) were also described. Loop filter design equations were shown and used in the case study of a frequency synthesizer potentially used in the WLAN standard. Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizers 43 The theory presented in this chapter as well as the detailed system level simulation presented in the chapter 4 aid the design and implementation of the two fractional-N synthesizer chips described in chapters 5 and 6.
Kozak, I. Kale, A. Borjak, and T. Bourdi, “A pipelined All-Digital Delta–Sigma Modulator for Fractional-N Frequency Synthesis,” IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (IMTC 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 1153–1157, Baltimore, MD, May 2000. 11a, b, and g). In chapter 3, detailed analyses of integer-N and ∆−Σ-based fractional-N phaselocked loops have been presented. Open-loop, closed loop, and phase noise equations have been derived. In this chapter, behavioral modeling for a proposed fractional-N ∆−Σ-based PLL is carried out to evaluate architectural limitations, identify dominant noise sources, automate loop filter optimization, and generate PFD/CP linearity specifications.
The simulation results obtained in this chapter and measured results of subblocks of the chip designed in chapter 5 contribute to the optimum design and implementation of fractional-N synthesizers presented in chapters 5 and 6. 2 PHASE-DOMAIN MODEL Figure 4-1 shows a block diagram of a ∆−Σ-based fractional-N synthesizer. 11a frequencies that will be described in chapter 5. However, for simplicity, Figure 4-1 shows the synthesized frequency to be two-thirds of the desired frequency. 11a bands. The CadenceTM model of this synthesizer is shown in Figure 4-2.