By John C. Cavanaugh, Fredda Blanchard-Fields
Written inside of a bio-psychosocial framework, Cavanaugh and Blanchard-Fields' best-selling booklet covers the explicit ages-stages of grownup improvement and getting older. In its remarkable assurance of present study and thought, the authors draw transparent connections among examine and alertness. The book's specialize in "positive aging" and the profits and losses humans adventure throughout maturity distinguish it from its opponents.
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Additional resources for Adult Development and Aging (7th Edition)
What we have done is an example of an experiment, which involves manipulating a key factor that the researcher believes is responsible for a particular behavior and randomly assigning participants to the experimental and control groups. In our case, the key variable being manipulated (termed the independent variable) is the instructions for how to study. In a study of memory, a typical behavior that is observed (termed the dependent variable) is the amount of information actually remembered. More generally, in an experiment the researcher is most interested in identifying differences between groups of people.
Once we have considered these, we will examine the specific designs for studying development. within the person and are not caused by the passage of time per se. Cohort effects are differences caused by experiences and circumstances unique to the generation to which one belongs. In general, cohort effects correspond to the normative history-graded influences discussed earlier. However, defining a cohort may not be easy. Cohorts can be specific, as in all people born in one particular year, or general, such as the baby-boom cohort.
Researchers must be careful to ensure that their sample is truly representative of the population of interest. An unrepresentative sample can result in invalid research. For example, what would you think of a study of middle-aged parents if you learned that the sample consisted entirely of two-parent households? You would, quite correctly, decide that this sample is not representative of all middle-aged parents and question whether its results apply to single middle-aged parents. As you read on, you’ll soon discover that most of the research we consider in this text has been conducted on middle-class, well-educated European Americans.