By Nathaniel Laor, Joseph Agassi (auth.)
1. normal The time period "diagnostics" refers back to the normal idea of prognosis, to not the learn of particular diagnoses yet to their basic framework. It borrows from varied sciences and from assorted philosophies. frequently, the overall framework of diagnostics used to be no longer wonderful from the framework of medication. It was once no longer taught in exact classes in any systematic method; it was once now not accorded specified awareness: scholars absorbed it intuitively. there's nearly no finished learn of diagnostics. The guide in prognosis supplied in scientific colleges is completely particular. medical guide contains (in addition to important heritage info, similar to anatomy and body structure) particular guide in nosology, the idea and type of ailments, and this contains info on diagnoses and prognoses of various ailments. what's the explanation for the forget of diagnostics, and of its built-in educating? the most reason could be the occurrence of the view of diagnostics as part-and parcel of nosology. during this ebook nosology is taken as a given, self sustaining box of research, which invitations nearly no reviews; we will freely borrow from it a couple of vital common theses and some examples. we strive to combine the following 3 experiences: ll of ways nosology is utilized in the diagnostic technique; of the diagnostic approach as a department of utilized ethics; ~ of the diagnostic approach as a department of social technological know-how and social technology.
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Additional info for Diagnosis: Philosophical and Medical Perspectives
These three aspects of the problem constitute the present problemsituation. Why are other parts of the context ignored, such as medical politics? How can each of the three other components mentioned here be taken separately when they are so obviously interconnected? This leads to a brief discussion of contexts. This discussion can scarcely be avoided, since there is a need for a rule to balance the approach to any problem as idealized, as pure text, context-less, sine-context, in a manner opposed to the systems approach, to the approach to the same problem within a given context.
Like the term II diagnosis II , the term II symptom II is also confusing: sometimes it is used to mean symptom, and more often, symptom or sign. Before diagnosis is completed the patient's symptoms are endorsed as they stand or in modification, or else the are omitted (usually by the examining physician); this way all the patients' processed symptoms may be viewed as signs, since they are now the examining physician's observations. ) The diagnostic process involves tentative attempts to group signs and symptoms together into descriptions of familiar, more or less standard clusters called II syndromes II , and the final syndrome constitutes the diagnosis, namely, the final diagnostic statement.
It is 38 CHAPTER TWO well known that the experts do not bother to calculate probabilities precisely. Perhaps medical intuition helps them make good decisions without calculating probabilities. Designers of computer programs for medical diagnosis often aim at a level of performance no higher than that of the specialist. Can the computer help here and improve diagnostic performance further by starting a diagnostic custom of relying on precise statistical computations? The intuition of diagnosticians concerning probabilities may be improved upon significantly by the use of computers at almost no cost, yet this may have no impact on the end result.