By Abraham Ben-Zvi
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Extra info for Decade of Transition: Eisenhower, Kennedy, and the origins of the American-Israeli alliance
Israel could not give up vital points . . S. and Israel, 1953–1956 Arab-Israeli sphere. Faced with this unwavering Israeli refusal to predicate its peace posture upon the belief that a unilateral concession on its part would ultimately trigger a mutually beneficial process of conflict reduction, the Secretary of State resorted to harsh coercive threats, which were not augmented by any explicit or implicit promise of compensation or inducement: . . We must know whether Israel would be willing to make concessions or not.
7 Divergence Dominates 23 Not only was the course of this conversation characteristic of the general, innate nature of American-Israeli relations during this period, which were permeated with tension and fraught with disagreement and misunderstanding, but its inconsequential outcome reflected the recurrent failure of a strategy that relied almost exclusively upon coercive tools and methods while avoiding any significant concrete and tangible reassuring accommodative measures vis-à-vis Israel. Indeed, a review of the conversation between Secretary of State Dulles and Foreign Minister Sharett, which took place on November 21, 1955, more than two and a half years after Secretary Assistant Byroade had unsuccessfully tried to set in motion a peacemaking process on the basis of certain Israeli unilateral territorial concessions, indicates that the respective expectations and negotiating strategies of the two parties remained essentially intact, although the American side had now a more concrete notion of the nature of the desired Israeli withdrawal (which reflected the Anglo-American “Alpha” plan) than was the case on April 21, 1953.
Was obtained because the Arab states refused to accept the partition plan and invaded Palestine to attack the Jews. Territory can only be taken away from Israel by force of arms, the Foreign Minister added . . Mr. S. and Israel, 1953–1956 standing of Israel’s position as enunciated by the Foreign Minister means Israel would make no territorial concessions and that the refugees must all be settled elsewhere than in Israel. ” . . Mr. Byroade suggested that since neither Israel nor the Arab states appeared willing to devise a plan for peace, the United States might have to make its own plan—and it was probable that neither side would like it.