By Michael Scott-Baumann
This publication explores and analyzes the background of clash within the heart East from British rule within the early 20th century to the Iraq battle within the twenty-first century. The Arab-Israeli clash is the focus of this booklet however it additionally examines: Arab nationalism, particularly in Egypt and Syria; the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979; the reasons and outcomes of 3 wars regarding Iraq; the expansion of political Islam and Islamic fundamentalism within the heart East.
Throughout the publication, key dates, phrases and matters are highlighted, and historic interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are incorporated to consolidate wisdom and realizing of the interval, and exam-style questions and counsel written by means of examiners give you the chance to strengthen examination talents.
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He had lost much respect, especially after divorcing his popular Egyptian wife and spending much of his time in expensive European resorts on the Mediterranean. The head of the new government was General Neguib, one of the more respected of the senior army ofﬁcers and, when Egypt became a republic in 1953, he became President. However, the most powerful member of the new government was Colonel Nasser. ’ He believed the ﬁrst part of this battle had now been won with the removal of the King’s government.
This chapter examines the causes and consequences of each of those wars. Then, ﬁnally, it recounts how Egypt became the ﬁrst Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel. These events are considered under the following headings: • • • • • Egypt and the Suez crisis The Suez War 1956 The causes of the Six-Day War 1967 The Six-Day War and its results From war to peace: Yom Kippur to Camp David 1973–8 Key dates 1949 1952 1954 1955 1956 1964 1965 1966 1967 First Arab–Israeli war ended in defeat for Arabs King of Egypt overthrown by army ofﬁcers Nasser became President of Egypt February Israeli attack on Gaza September Egypt announced Czech arms deal July Nationalisation of Suez Canal October 29 Israeli forces invaded Egypt October 31 British and French bombed Egyptian airﬁelds November 6 UN ceaseﬁre and Anglo-French withdrawal from Egypt Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) established Fatah carried out its ﬁrst raid on Israel Egypt signed a defence agreement with Syria April 7 Air ﬁght between Israeli and Syrian planes May 15 Nasser moved Egyptian troops into Sinai 36 | Crisis in the Middle East: Israel and the Arab States 1945–2007 May 22 1970 1973 1978 1979 1981 Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping May 30 Jordan signed a defence treaty with Egypt June 5–10 Six-Day War November UN Resolution 242 Anwar Sadat became President of Egypt October 6–24 Yom Kippur War Camp David Agreement between Egypt and Israel Treaty of Washington between Egypt and Israel Assassination of President Sadat 1 | Egypt and the Suez Crisis Israel and its Arab neighbours Israel and Syria In 1949, the UN had persuaded Israel and Syria to agree to a demilitarised zone along their border.
Syria accepted the UN call for a ceaseﬁre. Occupied territories Lands controlled by the troops of a foreign power (in this case, the West Bank, Gaza, Sinai and Golan Heights, all occupied by Israeli troops). Settlement A group of houses, as built by the Israelis on the West Bank and in Gaza. After their success in the war, the Israelis had to decide what to do with the lands they had conquered. These were the West Bank, Gaza, Sinai and the Golan Heights. For the time being, the Israeli government decided on military occupation.