Beginning Aymara: A Course for English Speakers by Paul Wexler

Beginning Aymara: A Course for English Speakers by Paul Wexler

By Paul Wexler

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Use of the past participle with on to signify lack or omission (see next section for discussion of this interesting usage). 4. Use of -nin as an alternative to –na as the cliticised verbal negative: amnin, wisnin, mithnin. 5. An idiomatic expression or than no to imply incredulity: “Poo’er or than no” — power indeed! ) 6. Sc. no as the negative adverb: “I’m nae seer”. . 10 Eugen Dieth’s landmark study, after nearly seventy years, retains its status as not only the most comprehensive description of the phonology of the dialect but one of the most scholarly and detailed studies ever made of any spoken form of Scots.

An unequivocal [i]. Mid-front-narrow, “as the vowel in German leer”. Keywords: aits (oats), rain, tae (toe). This is a fully peripheral [e], marginally higher than the IPA cardinal. Assuming (as we surely may do) the reliability of Mutschmann’s informants and the accuracy of his perceptions and his descriptions, this gives a set of twelve phonetically-distinct vowels. Applying the principle of phonemic analysis, this could be reduced to a phonological system of ten, since Mutschmann’s mid-mixed-narrow, high-mixed-wide lowered and high-frontwide lowered, on his showing, appear to be in complementary distribution: the second being the primary form, the first appearing before [r] and the third before a velar nasal or plosive.

H. Murray, for many years editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, for the first time raised dialect study to the status of a science by his account of Scots. The importance of this work goes far beyond its Scottish interest, as the methods of research and of organisation, exposition and interpretation of the data were immediately adopted by language scholars in France and Germany — though many years were to elapse before any further work of comparable importance was done in Scotland. The body of Murray’s paper is taken up with a historical account of the emergence, development and diversification of the Scots dialects and a detailed description of the form heard in the south of the country; but in an Appendix he provides some information on the dialects of other regions.

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