By Hymie Anisman, Steve Zalcman, Nola Shanks (auth.), Alan A. Boulton, Glen B. Baker, Mathew T. Martin-Iverson (eds.)
The Animal types in Psychiatry volumes are loosely prepared through topic. the 1st quantity encompasses a variety of chapters serious about schizophrenia, psyc- ses, neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesias, and different d- orders which may contain dopamine, equivalent to realization deficit sickness and mania. additionally integrated is a bankruptcy describing a behavioral version for activity-induced anorexia. the second one quantity bargains with affective and anxiousness issues, but in addition comprises chapters on matters no longer simply labeled as both psychotic, affective, or anxiety-related, reminiscent of aggression, psychological retardation, and reminiscence issues. 4 chapters on animal types of schizophrenia or psychoses are incorporated in quantity 18 end result of the value of those issues in psychiatry. Likewise, 3 chapters within the current v- ume take care of affective problems, with a fourth bankruptcy on circadian rhythms that still contributes to equipment for a- mal versions in affective problems. Following the 1st 4 chapters are chapters facing versions of tension and panic, chapters on aggression, one on psychological retardation, and a last bankruptcy overlaying reminiscence issues. some of the behaviorally-based versions of affective issues contain inducing rigidity in a- mals, often on a protracted foundation. the 1st bankruptcy by way of Anisman, Zalcman, Shanks, and Zacharko describes a number of the neurochemical results which are linked to the continual software of sensors.
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Additional info for Animal Models in Psychiatry, II
Like the stressor-provoked opioid variations observed in terminal fields, recent data suggest that alterations of neuropeptide activity occur at the site of origin of the major ascending NE and DA pathways. , 1987a,b). , 1985), and high levels of opioid immunoreactivity in and around the area of the locus 16 A&man et al. , 1983). Moreover, inhibition of locus ceruleus unit activity has been demonstrated following central opioid administration (Bird and Kuhar, 1977; Guyenet and Aghajanian, 1979).
1983b). Thus, the suggestion was offered that, following a chronic stressor regimen, adaptive neurochemical changes occurred, thereby eliminating the stressor-induced anhedonia, as reflected by the high levels of selfstimulation. In a subset of animals, however, the chronic stressor regimen did not necessarily lead to the neurochemical and behavioral adaptation, and antidepressant therapy may be necessary for the expression of self-stimulation. 6. Genetic Differences in Response to Stressors The symptoms that characterize a depressive disorder may vary appreciably across subjects, and it appears that the disorder may be biochemically heterogeneous.
As such, it would be too simplistic to assume a oneto-one correspondence between a neurochemical and a behavioral change provoked by stressors. Nevertheless, the finding that stressors differentially influence vulnerability to central neurochemical alterations as a function of brain region, as well as the strain of animal employed, emphasizes the necessity of a multifactorial approach in the assessment of stressor effects. Apparently, in developing an animal model of depression, it may not be sufficient to consider any one strain (or species), behavior, or neurochemical system.