By Owen Chadwick
May possibly a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick provides an research of the motives and effects of the tip of the old Papal country, and the mental pressures upon previous Rome because it got here less than assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never purely from Italy, yet from liberal pursuits in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish topics. If a united Italy used to be to be completed, the nation must disappear. those pressures brought on Popes to withstand "the global" instead of to aim to steer it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary in the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly facets of Catholic religion. while they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. therefore, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority should be way more centralized in Rome.
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Additional info for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
The anticlerical world had it in its head that the Jesuits were the pope's shock troops and the symbol of everything that was reactionary, which led to loud disputes between Jesuits and anticlericals during the middle years of the 18405, the last years of Pope Gregory. This clamour was important in the growing cleavage of France into clerical and anticlerical. The historian Michelet, who had academic •weight, gave a course on the history of the Jesuits which proved how historians use history for prejudiced ends.
The State claimed that this was necessary because of the revolutionary acts of the Archbishop. Pope Gregory XVI made an allocution to the cardinals (10 December i837), 20 that the Prussians trampled upon the liberties of the Church, that the office of bishop was treated with a total disrespect, and that the just rights of the pope were overthrown. The lawyers doubted whether the arrest was legal, and demanded to know the nature of the charge. For the first time in the century, but by no means the last, the papacy was in public conflict with the Prussian government.
The Congress of Vienna had one article (no. 16) on religion in Germany. It affected the settlement of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which was still based upon the success of the Reformation in establishing peace, that each State should have its own established religion (Catholic, Lutheran, or Reformed) and those who would not conform need not have civil rights. The age of German Enlightenment weakened this constitution as toleration grew. Then Napoleon everywhere introduced civil equality irrespective of religion.