By International Business Machines Corporation
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Extra resources for A comprehensive guide to virtual private networks. Volume I
Chapter 1. Virtual Private Networks (VPN) Overview 15 IPSec offers a way out of this dilemma. Its AH protocol offers a cryptographically robust and spoof-proof way to enforce access control, and its HMAC algorithms are robust enough that they can not be broken by most hackers. The processor power and the time needed to break them are both prohibitively expensive. In most IPSec-based VPNs, packet filtering will no longer be the principal method for enforcing access control. IPSec′s AH protocol, which is cryptographically robust, will fill that role.
The security of these algorithms rely entirely on the key, not on their internal secrets. In fact the algorithms themselves are public and are extensively analyzed for possible weaknesses. Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 23 Note: As a general rule, be conservative. Do not trust brand new, unknown or unpublished algorithms. The principle of the keyed ciphers is shown in Figure 10 on page 24. Figure 10. Keyed Encryption and Decryption Note: It is common in the cryptographic literature to denote the first participant in a protocol as Alice and the second one as Bob.
A well-known block algorithm is DES, a worldwide standard cipher developed by IBM. DES is an acronym for Data Encryption Standard. DES operates on 64-bit blocks and has a key length of 56 bits, often expressed as a 64-bit number, with every eighth bit serving as parity bit. From this key 16 subkeys are derived, which are used in the 16 rounds of the algorithm. DES produces ciphertexts of the same length as the cleartext and the decryption algorithm is exactly the same as the encryption, the only difference being the subkey schedule.