Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Curr. Concepts and by K. Ong

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Curr. Concepts and by K. Ong

By K. Ong

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Biochem. 268, 3871±3882. Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SE. (1997). Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 337, 230–236. Nygard O, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Vollset SE. (1998). Major lifestyle determinants of plasma total homocysteine distribution: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 67, 263–270. Okuyan E, Uslu A, Cakar MA, Sahin I, Onür I, Enhos A, Biter HI, Cetin S, Dinçkal MH. (2010). Homocysteine levels in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

The method by which this is achieved is through the use of a bronchoscope to deploy one-way valves, administer sealants, or apply thermal ablation to exclude diseased portions of the lung [60-62]. It is important to note that these techniques have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of severe emphysema and are currently utilized on experimental basis only. The most developed and well-studied of the bronchoscopic techniques is the one-way valve. One-way valves allow air and mucus to escape from the excluded portion of lung yet concomitantly excluding that portion of the lung from normal physiological function.

M. ; Mustard lung secrets: Long term clinicopathological study following mustard gas exposure, Pathology – Research and Practice, 2006, 202, 739–744. ; Stone, W. L: Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a mustard gas analog in murine macrophages. BMC Cell Biology, 2006, 7, 1-9. ; Sandström, T. Diesel exhaust increases EGFR and phosphorylated C-terminal Tyr 1173 in the bronchial epithelium. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2008, 5, 1-9. S. The transcription factor NF-kB and human disease.

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